Political Science, Sociology and International Relations – PSSIR Conference

Selected Accepted Papers

Selected Accepted Papers

Putin’s political changes moving toward an illiberal democracy have created a system where journalists, political challengers, and those from within the “siloviki” or “connected guys” of the security and military systems who attempt to challenge his power run the risk of the most extreme punishment. Journalists are harassed, jailed, and even killed if they insist upon reporting on the truth of events in Russia. Political challengers find themselves cut off from access to media, discriminated against in their attempts to run for office, are faced with physical threats and intimidation, and can even find themselves jailed or killed if they insist upon running for office. Former allies from the security services who try to speak up find themselves imprisoned or even attacked. This dangerous path not only makes like extraordinarily difficulty for those who are trying to change Russia from within, it also harming Russia herself with respect to her future political development, stability, and creation of a strong civil society. When internal voices that are trying to speak up in their attempt to challenge Putin’s direction are silenced, then the entire system pays the price. Dissenting voices, which might help provide correction, advice, accountability, and an opportunity to express dissatisfaction, are shut down. This is unhealthy for the government, as they refuse to hear the concerns of society. It is also unhealthy for society, as they are frightened into silence and submission. In short, Putin’s political changes are putting Russia on a dangerous path toward instability and internal struggle.
In 2008, the economic crisis engulfed Europe destroying “employment, production and human security” (Amartya Sen, 2012) and together with social retrenchments, have produced a significant impact on the living conditions of European citizens. The increase in poverty, social exclusion and food insecurity rates (Eurostat, 2015), have led to the flourishing of resilient civil society initiatives that aim to address new and differed forms of social vulnerability. Among those initiatives arise the alternative resilient forms which work towards a more democratic and sustainable food system that includes: e.g. food banks, soup kitchens, solidarity purchase groups, urban agriculture, solidarity cards, social grocery, emporiums of solidarity. This paper envisages enhancing theoretical and practical understanding of the role of civil society organizations in fostering human capabilities. With this in mind, the concept of collective capabilities (Ibrahim, 2006) will be adopted. This deliverable aims to address collective capabilities as those capabilities a person can achieve if he/she joins a collectivity, such as a resilient civil society initiative. The achievement of human capabilities can be defined not only in terms of individual process but also as collective exercise that affect both individual and communal well-being defined as ‘the whole network of social conditions wh In light of this, three civil society initiatives which work to help people to be food secure in Rome, Barcelona and Athens would be analysed. It addresses “if” and “how” these resilient organizations support people in achieving the functiong of being well-nourished and whether these initiatives tend to expand human capabilities empowering beneficiaries. This deliverable conveys the case of Caritas’s emporiums of solidarity in Rome; the initiative of solidarity card implemented by Caritas and Municipality in Barcelona; and lastly, the Greek NGO "Kipoda" in Athens with its different helping services.
yrian Crisis was a result of an unsystematic rival. However, the crisis has a clear difference with other Arab ones. First, it continues for longer time. Second, many international and national parties took share in this crisis. Syrian crisis is the most violent one in the Arab region, turning into a fetal civil war, destroying most of the Syrian regions. Multi-ethnic Syria is more complicated than Egypt, Tunisia or Yemen. It is a direct neighboring country to some influential states, i.e. Lebanon, Jordon, Palestine, Iraq and Turkey, and an indirect neighbor to a regional essential country, Iran. All of such matters make Syrian matter more difficult and complicated. Russia wasn't far from what was happening. It was a principle party in the crisis. Syrian file is a very essential issue in the Russian foreign policy, and an important axe of the Russian political game in the Arab region.
Abortion tourism is one of the ethical and legal challenges draw the attention of academia both in the field of empirical and human science. The most remarkable fact in these studies is the deep differences among scholars reflected in the wide range of absolute permission to absolute ban. As a result, the approach of legal systems for or against abortion has been diverse and different and, in some cases, contradictory laws have been passed in regards to this field. This Article tries to study legal tourism in the context of abortion in perspective of ethics and law, and analyses how to address this issue in the light of private international rules, systematically. Legal tourism can be interpreted as a skullduggery so that such an act is not identified under the law that is normally applied. In order to prevent this act, some legal system limit the privileges related to the abortion to their own citizens. The freedom of movement enables persons to become free from applicable laws where they reside, while their acts become the subject of a foreign law which has more advantages to them. This act which is called legal tourism is the illusion of a family from the country where they reside and bans abortion to temporarily stay in another country which permits abortion. Abortion tourism leads to the enforcement of laws of the country that permit it, instead of the law that bans it, while the latter is normally applicable. Moreover, ethical considerations that surround the abortion make the application of the rules of conflict difficult and challenging.
This discovery of radicalised individuals among blue-collar Bangladeshi migrant workers in Singapore in 2015 and 2016 raises the question of why and how some individuals from this demography may embrace extremist ideologies. This thesis explores possible factors of their radicalisation by using both primary and secondary data sources. I study the phenomena through the lens of globalisation and by combining elements from social identity theory and social movement theory. I posit that their radicalisation, if any, is largely influenced by global actions and events, the internal religio-political dynamics of Bangladesh, and the social environment in Singapore. I argue these dynamics in the global and domestic environments of these workers interact and align to influence their radicalisation; some of them become receptive to radical ideologies when their experiences resonate with the frames and narratives postulated by extremist movements, and is looking for justice and fairness, a clear sense of inclusion and purpose, and the opportunity to restore their sense of significance.
Migration is a phenomenon of movement of people based on numbers, distance, social, political and economic factors affecting and bringing about changes to both the origin and host societies. It also involves flow of information, income and human resources in between the place of origin and destination. This research examines the diverse migration flows and its implications in a small town of Manipur in India- Ukhrul. Migration trend in Ukhrul town in this research is mainly concentrated on two types of internal migration such as migration from within Northeast region i.e. from Assam and migration from outside Northeast region i.e. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Kerala, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. This research seeks to identify and establish the relevancy of some of the major problems pertaining to migrant issues and need for a close examination of the socio-economic and cultural environment of the people. The causes and consequences of the presence of migrants in Ukhrul town, and the role played by the civil society and its organizations in the networking of the locals' and migrants' complex situation occupies important aspects of the study.The results of research show that relationship is based on economic survival strategies of struggle for livelihood and sustenance on both sides. Under such dynamics of relationship, accommodation and social adjustment between the locals and migrants with some restraint of protectionism by the locals becomes an integral part of the narrative.
In the first part of the last century, two World Wars devastated the large part of Europe. For decades afterwards, the East and the West challenged each other as enemies and have been divided into two parts during the Cold War. All countries over the world have been forced to take a side politically by two superpowers. The external-internal political relations of countries have been shaped according to Washington-Moscow line. The usually good Hungarian-Turkish relations were shadowed by the bipolar structure of the world politics and bilateral contacts were dependent upon the state of relations between the two superpowers. Despite taking place in opposing camps during the Cold War, the two countries maintained their relations based on traditional friendship. Especially the mutual official visits continued between both countries during the Cold War. Hungarian-Turkish relations before, during and after the Cold War should be understood both in the context of Hungary’s bilateral relationship to Turkey and within the framework of Hungary’s Warsaw Pact membership and Turkey`s NATO membership. With the end of the WW II, Turkey turned its face toward NATO and Hungary turned its face toward Warsaw Pact. In this study, the political relations between Hungary and Turkey during the Cold War will be examined with regard to the bipolar system in the world. In addition to these, the mutual official visits, which contributed Hungarian-Turkish relations to develop, will be considered for the study by benefiting from written media sources as well. Besides that, this article tries to shed light on the state of Turkish-Hungarian political relations during the bipolar world order.
this paper examines the development of the concept of the Ummah in the Salafi and Jihadist doctrine in the twenty and the twenty first century. It will argue that the divisions within the Salafi movements (Salafi, Wahhabi, Jihadist, and Modern Salafi, are based on the contextual interpretation of religious doctrine and questions of how to make Salafi teachings pertinent to the different socio-economic and political environments they operate in. The development of the concept of the Ummah in the twenty and twenty first century stems from the different interpretation of jurists to the relationship between religion, political authority and Jurists, as well as, the relationship between Muslims and non-Muslims in the Islamic theology. Based on different methods they advocate to achieve their goals and fulfill their mission, different sub-divisions of Salafi appeared.
Migration is a phenomenon of movement of people based on numbers, distance, social, political and economic factors affecting and bringing about changes to both the origin and host societies. It also involves flow of information, income and human resources in between the place of origin and destination. This research examines the diverse migration flows and its implications in a small town of Manipur in India- Ukhrul. Migration trend in Ukhrul town in this research is mainly concentrated on two types of internal migration such as migration from within Northeast region i.e. from Assam and migration from outside Northeast region i.e. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Kerala, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. This research seeks to identify and establish the relevancy of some of the major problems pertaining to migrant issues and need for a close examination of the people. The causes and consequences of the presence of migrants in Ukhrul town, and the role played by the civil society and its organizations in the networking of the locals' and migrants' complex situation occupies important aspects of the study. The results of research show that relationship is based on economic survival strategies of struggle for livelihood and sustenance on both sides. Under such dynamics of this relationship accommodation and social adjustment between the locals and migrants with some restraint of protectionism by the locals becomes an integral part of the narrative.
Slavery has been part of every era when it comes to evolutions and upliftment of society. These laborers and slaves are the ones who are always left behind finding ways and stairs to climb up high to the general standards of societies. But after the collapse of slavery, the new fashion was indentured labor also a difference from Africa to Asia. Company or dominion of the British East India Company began in 1757 1757, after the Battle of Plassey. The Slavery was officially abolished in 1832 and there was a severe need for people to work for the rule in Farms and mines and where not. The earliest attempt to import indentured labor from India to British Guiana ended in scandal and public outcry when anti-slavery advocates’ accusations that the new labor system was really no different from slavery appeared to be substantiated by subsequent governmental inquiry and an excessively high mortality rate amongst the migrants. On 18 January 1826, as the Government of the French Indian Ocean island of Réunion introduced Indian laborers to the colony. The first attempt at importing Indian labor into Mauritius, in 1829, ended in failure, and by 1838 there was 25000 indentured labor in the colonies. According to the records between 1845 and 1917, a total of 143,939 laborers migrated to Trinidad and elsewhere in more numbers. Approximately 85% of the immigrants being Hindus, and 14% Muslims. The Indian Indentured labor diaspora is never being considered a living habitat rather just being a policy of movement of people imposed by the colonial rule as a requirement of work. This paper describes the Indian indenture as a living habitat and it should be a part of the education system and should be taught in a more open and remarkable way. To describe the whole diasporic habitat, there is a structure of Four Phases, the following is a brief of each phase and the description of the Diaspora and how it is and always a living habitat that changed the phase of countries and beliefs around the world. 1 . First Phase: Dispersal Phase The Dispersal is defined as the communities who have been a part or dispersal due to a traumatic event happened in homeland the and have moved to two or more destinations. Due to some disturbances in the Homeland People tend to Move outside to live a safe life, healthy family.What do these traumatic events like wars, Diseases and Political environments bring with them? It is Unemployment, disturbed lifestyle, No Income security, no habitat security.Due to high levels of illiteracy, few workers understood the terms of the contract they put their thumb imprints and somewhere forced to do so. The Calico Acts The Great Bengal Famine of 1770, socio-economic regulation 1973, Cantonment Act 1895, The Agra famine of 1837–1838. These reasons let the people intentionally or forceful admit to Indenture. People warned Others regarding the Threats of leaving the land and dispersing in a land of No value and Virtues, but people migrated in bunches to places. 2. Second Phase: Assimilation Diaspora communities retain a collective memory about their original homeland, they suppose to return to their homeland. Indians Are known for their culture and their religious beliefs and these were the main agents which bind all the people in the indentured land. Hindu indentured workers and that helped them to create a distinctive diasporic consciousness – the reconstitution of family life, more specifically, the adoption of the Ramayana as ‘the essential text of the Hindu diaspora, says Cohen. The re establishment was the hardest task the count of men and women as British rule limited the Number of women, a ratio of 4 with 10 men.Cohen writes “probably for the first time in their lives, [women] got an opportunity to exercise a degree of control over their sexual and social lives”. The Adoption of RAMAYANA, the basic teachings and beliefs people (Hindus) should follow to live a life according to dharma and to make their souls be Swargwasi(soul who lives in heaven). Lord Rama takes his journey of 14 years of exile through different ups and down. The Ramayana taught the Indian indenture people how to be religiously and ethically correct and live a life as lord Rama did in exile, the path of Dharma and purity. The reestablishment of the family, the ethical values of the people related to Ramayana showcasing their grips over the Homeland culture with assimilation i.e no caste barriers, Finally the Unacceptability of the Community. 3. Third Phase: Deterritorialization Acceptance of changes and how the communities outside the Homeland borders have developed differently in all situations and conditions. Homeland: What exactly is homeland on how diaspora communities grow away from the homeland and how do they recognize the concept of homeland The Period of the colonial time in India and specifically the Indian Indenture period one important part of the human existence faced huge problems of certain kinds of acceptances.Female infanticide, Child marriage, Sati, Death Charge, Very little Education and learning for women were the problems faced by the women of the time. “It was — and is —widely believed that the indentured women were recruited through fraudulent means, they were mostly women of loose character, \\\'generally single, broken creatures ... sent to the recruiting stations to fill the quotas authorized by the colonial office”(68) Cohen in his article quotes Brah, saying “Where is home? On the one hand, ‘home’ is a mythic place of desire in the diasporic imagination. In this sense, it is a place of no return, even if it is possible to visit the geographical territory that is seen as the place of ‘origin’. Homeland as both a physical place and Illusion or a place where we have a memory from. Indian Indenture on this part follows both an illusion of homeland and physical homeland. The main issue is how will measurement be done, weather the place explained by the laborer is an illusion of memories and experiences or a physical place. Homebound ethnic orientations or Homelands and cultures, the memories are what everything is accepted by. The cultural aspect is what reminds of the homeland and experience. 4. Fourth Phase: Post-abolishing era A legal and Political environment which allows to maintain and survive a Diaspora community.Migration there are set of rules and regulation for specific a country. The political part is when a country is allowing a special kind i.e Nationality/religion/race/ethnicity of diaspora or migration to develop and purposely legalize in the boundaries of a host nation. There was severe the Political and legal complication made it very hard for the Indian Indentured diaspora to develop freely. Indian indenture descents suffered extensive discrimination at the hands of the Fijian political elite over land and lease issues. An estimated 15,000 people Indian descent living in Uganda compared to approximately 80,000 before 1972. The main reason this expulsion of Indians from the country happen was when President Idi Amin ordered the expulsion of Asians living in Uganda. On the other hand in Mauritius, Indians were the one who were able to extend their lands all over and the idea of sizeable educated, urbanized, a professional class which finally lead to the State power in the hands of Indian Indentured laborers at Independence. The Current Prime minister of Mauritius Pravind Jugnauth was born into a modest Hindu Ahi family of laborers. His father the former Prime minister and Former President of Mauritius Sir Anerood Jugnauth grandfather had migrated to Mauritius from India in 1850 he was brought up in a Bhojpuri medium. The topic of diaspora has never been an easy thing to understand and hence figuring out a more Hidden and undermined, Started as a colonial policy as a replacement for slavery, this diaspora has always raised the bars of every kind from being harassed and forcefully embedded in the policy to shipping and working in painful situations and growing up from all the trauma and even getting away from the pattern and beliefs of the homeland and raising bars of Independence and spark of new and fresh starts in all beliefs and system.
Reasoning why and how a decision maker chooses to take certain decisions from a given set of alternatives, it is essential to understand the determinants behind the decision making process. This paper is an attempt to examine the decision-making model of Trump concerning the withdrawal from the Paris Climate Accord. The paper analyses the decision making process and model of Trump, with an analysis of its departure from Paris agreement. It is divided into three parts; firstly, will look into the determinants of foreign policy decision-making process; secondly, the rational actor model and its alternative bounded rationality; and lastly, Paris withdrawal and bounded rationality.
A careful reading of Kautalya’s Arthashashtra among the ancient Indian Sanskrit literature would establish that Kautalyan theory, in many ways, was the precursor of the contemporary discipline of Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution. The ideas of spatial organisation of the kingdoms which would lead to some kind of balance among the latter and hence restraining conflict, role of powerful kings and their armies in peace enforcement, absence of conflict between two kingdoms similar in some or other aspects, role of the state administration in providing resources to the subjects to make their lives meaningful- all these ideas, among others, in some way or the other, anticipate what today we study, teach and research in the field of what is known in many universities and research institutions as an independent academic discipline of Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution. The evolution of contemporary discipline of peace and conflict studies since mid-20th century had a particular context. The discipline was moulded in a fashion, which reflected the western thought process to provide to the world historical, ideological, cultural and/or empirical explanations of inter and intra-state conflicts and the possible ways and means to tackle them. The systemic, dyadic and individual-level theories attempted to explain these aspects related to peace and conflict in their own ways. The realist ideas and democratic peace theory were useful contributions in this regard. Further additions in the 1960s were made where Galtung’s negative and positive peace were considered to be useful tools of analysis in order to understand peace beyond simply as absence of violence. Gandhian methods too became the focus of analysis in order to analyse causes of conflicts and meanings of peace in the contemporary international political environment. Among all these, approaches, the realist model still is considered the most influential approach to understand causes of conflict and possibilities of peace between nations in a given international political environment. The paper endeavours to explore that these ideas and approaches were present in the literature of Kautalya’s Arthashashtra.
The Swedish approach to refugee migration makes a special case in more than one way. The refugee regulation is internationally recognized as liberal, while the integration policy scores high in international comparison. The paper argues that – in contrary to the past decades’ tangible transformation in public administration in Sweden informed by New Public Management (NPM) and New Public Governance(NPG), stability and continuity has dominated the Swedish refugee policy, and its three areas, regulation, settlement, and integration. Collaborative governance, involving non-coercive systems of agreements, negotiations, reciprocity and consensus seeking, has dominated the past four-five decades. In 2015-2016, however, a radical turn took place from collaborative governance based on norms of solidarity and trust, to coercive ‘rule by law’, giving the state and its legislative powers a new revival. The paper, that draws previous research and government reports, concludes with a discussion about plausible explanations to this radical turn.
Present-day Indonesia maintains a narrative of a plural but unified nation. At the same time, multicultural policies extend different degrees of recognition, accommodation, toleration and even discrimination towards different socio-cultural groups. In conjunction with distinct ethnographic landscapes across regions in Indonesia, this approach leads to a varied experience and understanding of national identity and multiculturalism among people. The microcosms of university students can showcase this variety. A comparison between university students in Banda Aceh and Bandung highlights the influence of one’s surroundings on their perception of multiculturalism. Students in the more heterogenous area of Bandung show more acceptance towards diversity whereas students in Banda Aceh give normative answers on tolerance but have little experience in dealing with diversity. Students in both areas claim to have positive feelings and a keen sense of attachment to Indonesia but hold different ideas of what constitutes an ideal Indonesian national identity.
This paper is a reflection on the connection between the Black Arts Movement, Nation of Islam and Conscious Hip Hop as a means of protest (for the people) and propaganda (for the government). In this study, I have shed light on the works of underground hip hop artists and its cathartic effect on cultural movements. My central contention suggests that both Hip-Hop and Islam share the same ideologies when used in the correct manner. Through discourse analysis, I will identify the motivating factors of Hip Hop and their effectiveness as agencies for change, as well as applying my analysis to key socio-political movements. I will also explore briefly the history and development of Hip-Hop and draw a connection between the Black Arts Movement, Nation of Islam and the emergence of Hip-Hop activism, resulting in the culture we see today.
In accordance with the serious trend of rural ageing population and meet with the growing demand, China government has implemented Rural Social Endowment Insurance System since 2009. Based on perspective of intergenerational economic support, this paper study on Rural Social Endowment Insurance and discuss how the rural pension income effects family’s living welfare in based of the analysis of new rural insurance compensation mechanism. The conclusions show that, on the one hand, pension income enhances the economic independence of rural elderly, reduces the economic burden of adult children. Meanwhile, based on supporting the adult children’s life, especially increasing the grandchildren's pocket money, the intergenerational transfer of pension income improves the overall economic well-being of the family, and promotes the sustainable development of a harmonious relationship among family members.